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Physics

Deep-sea challenges
This is a backgrounder about physical oceanography. Deep is dangerous. It may be more dangerous for man to dive to the depths, than to go out in space. Learn more about these deep-sea challenges!
Deep-sea challenges
Pressure
Hydrostatic pressure is the most generally applicable factor with a constant increase of 10 atm per 100 m depth. Beginning with a depth of ca. 6000 m a change in faunal composition can be observed that is possibly related to pressure.
Pressure
Temperature
Hydrostatic pressure is the most generally applicable factor with a constant increase of 10 atm per 100 m depth. Beginning with a depth of ca. 6000 m a change in faunal composition can be observed that is possibly related to pressure.
Temperature
Light
Light is an important ecological factor that influences organisms significantly. Light is the primary source of energy intake in plants (primary production based on photosynthesis), it warms up air, bottoms, and water and allows direct absorption of heat by animals. Light facilitates the orientation in the environment and the recognition of food and mates.
Light
Deep-sea structure
There are typical structural features that enable the ocean world to be divided into zones. Topographical zones, relating to the sea floor, and Bathymetric zones, relating to water depth.
Deep-sea structure
Cool facts on ocean-currents
There are two main kinds of ocean currents, those driven by the wind and the earth's rotation that affect the surface waters, and those driven by density that affect the deeper waters.
Cool facts on ocean-currents
Ocean currents
The physical setting of the mid-Atlantic Ocean: Hydrodynamic modelling and satellite observations of regional watermasses and frontal zone features.
Ocean currents
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